Bam/402 – exam – public relations

1) Public relations .

A) is a form of propaganda
B) involves two-way communication
C) is also known as “free advertising”

D) All of the above.
E) None of the above.

2) The process of researching, creating, and refining a product or service and distributing that product or service to targeted customers is called .

A) advertising
B) marketing
C) public relations
D) All of the above.
E) None of the above.

3) A profession is distinguished from a trade by .

A) the establishment of ethical standards
B) a form of licensing or government control
C) ongoing research in support of the profession
D) A and B
E) All of the above.

4) Organizations such as PRSA and IABC have sought to promote professionalism in public relations by .

A) requiring minimum competency tests for new practitioners
B) demanding an increase in practitioner minimum salaries
C) establishing voluntary accreditation programs
D) filing lawsuits against unethical practitioners
E) supporting government licensing of public relations

5) The execution phase of the public relations process is known as .

A) planning
B) propaganda
C) evaluation 
D) research
E) communication

6) According to a 2005 membership survey, the largest number of PRSA members are employed by .

A) trade/professional organizations
B) the government or the military
C) public relations/advertising agencies
D) corporations
E) nonprofit organizations

7) The values-driven management of relationships between an organization and the publics that can affect its success is known as .

A) reputation management
B) the dynamic approach to public relations
C) values-added public relations

D) values-driven public relations

E) relationship building

8) The first question an organization should ask itself when developing a values statement is .

A) Why are we in business?

B) What is in it for us?
C) How can we win the respect of others?
D) Why should be care about our customers?

E) How much money do we want to make?

9) San Francisco-based Gap, Inc. .

A) was found guilty of engaging in unfair labor practices and of using foreign sweatshops
B) was forced to apologize for artificially raising the price of it blue jeans
C) answered its critics by requiring fair labor practices among its overseas vendors
D) created phony shell corporations to cover its use of foreign sweatshops
E) B and D

10) Gap Incorporated’s Social Responsibility Report .

A) was an effort to live up to the company’s previously established corporate code of conduct
B) uncovered thousands of fair labor violations by its overseas suppliers
C) detailed the company’s efforts to monitor the labor practices of its foreign vendors
D) All of the above.
E) None of the above.

11) When public relations practitioners seek to maintain or improve relations with local special interest groups, they are engaged in .

A) investor relations
B) community relations C) employee relations D) media relations
E) consumer relations

12) When public relations practitioners communicate on behalf of churches, foundations, or hospitals, they are most likely employed in which category of public relations jobs?

A) independent public relations consultancies
B) corporations
C) governments
D) nonprofit organizations and trade associations
E) public relations agencies

13) In which broad category of public relations jobs are practitioners least likely to have the term public relations included in their job titles?

A) governments
B) public relations agencies
C) corporations
D) independent public relations consultancies
E) nonprofit organizations and trade associations

14) The United States Code has its greatest impact upon public relations practitioners in .

A) corporations
B) public relations agencies
C) nonprofit organizations and trade associations
D) independent public relations consultancies
E) governments

15) When trying to get that first job or internship, you should
A) send form letters to as many potential employers as possible
B) try to say as little as possible about your experience
C) ask where your desk will be located
D) ask about salary and benefits in your application letter
E) thoroughly research a potential employer before applying

16) According to Professor David Dozier, persons who make policy decisions and take responsibility for the success or failure of public relations programs are known as public relations

A) technicians
B) managers
C) specialists
D) professionals
E) practitioners

17) Which of the following statements is true?

A) Corporate communicators earn the lowest salaries in public relations.
B) On average, public relations technicians earn more money than public relations managers.
C) On average, women practitioners earn more than men practitioners.
D) All of the above.
E) None of the above. – not 100% sure

18) Fineman Associates Public Relations of San Francisco has become well known for .

A) presenting the Fineman Cup for Public Relations Excellence
B) becoming the world’s largest public relations agency
C) compiling a list of the year’s worst public relations disasters
D) winning the most public relations awards in history
E) paying the highest salaries among public relations agencies

19) When trying to getting that first internship or job, you should

A) send a brief, typed thank-you letter after each interview
B) send an error-free application letter and resume
C) prepare for the job interview
D) all of the above
E) none of the above

20) The most important event in the development of modern U.S. public relations is .

A) the Industrial Revolution
B) the Boston Tea Party
C) Crystallizing Public Opinion
D) the ratification of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights
E) the growth of public education

21) The Scopes Monkey Trial .

A) was a publicity stunt
B) focused on Darwin’s theory of evolution
C) was a historic clash between science and religion
D) All of the above.
E) None of the above.

22) The so-called “Four Minute Men” .

A) are former track and field stars who now serve as PR
B) were affiliated with the Creel Committee
C) delivered patriotic messages during the First World War
D) A and B

E) B and C

23) Which of the following is not mentioned as one of the five social trends that led to the development of modern public relations?

A) the expansion of democracy
B) the growth of institutions
C) the growth of advocacy
D) the aging of the Baby Boom generation
E) the search for consensus

24) The First Amendment is important to public relations because it .

A) guarantees the right to vote
B) created the concept of disclosure laws
C) included the “Declaration of Principles”

D) established the right to free expression
E) limits the amount of federal money that can be used to pay a publicity expert

25) Early publicity shops met with limited success because

A) few understood what publicity was
B) they met stiff resistance from newspaper publishers
C) credibility was a problem
D) All of the above
E) None of the above

26) Edward L. Bernays’ critics claimed that he .

A) was too self-promotional

B) was a Nazi sympathizer

C) was dishonest
D) was sexist
E) didn’t understand the plight of poor people

27) Doris Fleischman was the wife and influential business partner of .

A) Edward L. Bernays

B) Ivy Ledbetter Lee

C) George Creel
D) George Parker
E) P.T. Barnum

28) This was the first nationwide grassroots fund raising campaign on behalf of medical research.

A) The Danny Thomas – St. Jude’s Children’s Hospital Foundation
B) The Susan G. Komen Race for the Cure
C) The March of Dimes
D) The Great American Smoke-Out
E) The Jerry Lewis Muscular Dystrophy Association Labor Day Telethon

29) When you communicate with one public in an attempt to reach another public, the public with whom you are communicating is known as .

A) an intervening public
B) a secondary public
C) a primary public

D) an aware public

E) a latent public

30) A group whose values have come into contact with the values of your organization, but which has not realized it is known as

A) a secondary public
B) a primary public

C) an aware public

D) a latent public
E) an intervening public

31) A group that can directly influence your organization’s abilities to achieve its goals is known as .

A) a secondary public
B) a primary public
C) a latent public
D) an intervening public
E) an aware public

32) The notion that organizations rely on resources that are held by other groups is called .

A) external resource theory
B) resource dependency theory
C) orientation
D) codependency theory
E) external reliance theory

33) As a general rule, the news media in the United States.

A) are a secondary, nontraditional, and latent public
B) must publish or broadcast all news releases that are given to them
C) have done a good job of incorporating women and minorities into management
D) do not reflect the cultural diversity of their communities
E) require government licenses to cover the news

34) Which of the following statements is/are true?

A) The number of federal government employees is rising.
B) Less than half of federal government employees a satisfied with information they get from management.
C) A majority of federal government employees say they are satisfied with their jobs.
D) All of the above are true.

E) All of the above are false.

35) is/are the most powerful force(s) in the U.S. economy.

A) Business expenditures

B) Industrial expenditures

C) Foreign investments
D) Consumer spending
E) Government spending

36) When the Subway restaurant chain received complaints about a promotion in its German franchises highly critical of McDonald’s and American consumers, company officials

A) resigned
B) asked for a federal government investigation
C) defended the promotion
D) continued the promotion
E) disavowed knowledge of the promotion

37) The Whirlpool Corporation’s decision to supply household appliances to every home built by Habitat for Humanity is an example of .

A) a company acting on its values
B) a great way to dispose of out-of-date inventory
C) corporate social responsibility
D) A and C

E) B and C

38) The theory that some needs are more basic than others and, therefore, provide us with greater motivation than others is

A) Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

B) Uses and Gratifications Theory

C) Einstein’s Theory of Relativity

D) The Agenda Setting Hypothesis

E) Marsh’s Theory of Compliance

39) According to Abraham Maslow, is/are the most basic order(s) of needs people have.

A) safety needs

B) acceptance

C) self-esteem
D) self-actualization
E) physiological needs

40) The purpose of Monroe’s Motivated Sequence is to .

A) study the evolution of public opinion
B) anticipate future trends
C) measure public opinion
D) build persuasive messages
E) counteract Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

41) is what happens when a public debate leads to a consensus.

A) An already present mass sentiment
B) An issue
C) A social value

D) Public opinion

E) A social action

42) When public relations practitioners attempt to manipulate public opinion, they run the risk of losing their .

A) respect
B) credibility
C) license
D) innocence
E) accreditation

43) Communicating an idea in such a way that an audience is influenced, either intentionally or unintentionally, by the way it is expressed is known as .

A) coloring

B) shading

C) framing

D) spinning

E) manipulation

44) The main reason President Harry Truman did not realize that the Japanese government was interested in negotiating a peace settlement just before the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima is because .

A) the Japanese did not respond to the Potsdam Declaration
B) it was the weekend
C) the Japanese sent him a message he couldn’t understand
D) government bureaucrats in Washington misplaced the message
E) the Japanese Prime Minister was opposed to peace

45) The PRSA Member Code of Ethics is example of ethics code.

A) An organizational
B) a professional

C) A societal

D) A personal

E) A voluntary

46) According to the authors of your textbook, the notion that public relations practitioners must choose between objectivity and advocacy is .

A) a misleading ethics debate based upon a false premise
B) called the Potter Box
C) a necessary evil
D) rejected by all practitioners
E) an example of the veil of ignorance

47) Virtual organizations are a challenge to ethical behavior because .

A) they don’t really exist
B) participants may have differing values
C) they are multinational
D) they are illegal
E) none of the above

48) The public relations practitioner’s role as a relationship manager .

A) resolves the misleading question of whether one should serve as an advocate or as an objective observer
B) can involve the delivery of unpopular truths
C) can mean that sometimes it is necessary to be an advocate
D) All of the above.
E) None of the above.

49) Immanuel Kant’s categorical imperative requires one to make ethical decisions as if .

A) it were a life or death situation
B) we have reach the “Golden Mean of Enlightenment”
C) there is a veil of ignorance descending upon the world
D) they would be applied as rules you want everyone else to follow
E) it’s the end of the world as we know it

50) Ethical considerations play an especially important role in step of the public relations process.

A) the research

B) the evaluation

C) the planning

D) every

E) the communication

51) Research that focuses on an organization’s reputation and products is .

A) evaluation research
B) client research
C) problem-opportunity research
D) stakeholder research
E) quantitative research

52) Which of the following has/have been identified as among the key components for evaluating relationships?

A) trust
B) communal relationship
C) Q rating
D) A and B
E) all of the above

53) Research that focuses upon measuring the effectiveness of a public relations plan is .

A) client research
B) stakeholder research

C) evaluation research

D) quantitative research
E) problem-opportunity research

54) The creation of the Policy Analysis Market (PAM) .

A) was criticized by many as a dumb idea
B) did not consider the reactions of key stakeholders
C) was based on successful scientific research
D) A and C
E) All of the above.

55) The Brookhaven National Laboratory was careful in how it announced a scientific discovery because .

A) it didn’t want to be accused of trying to manipulate the congressional budget process
B) the target audience probably wouldn’t understand its significance
C) it was concerned about a loss of federal funding
D) A and B

E) A and C

56) The Brookhaven National Laboratory decided to announce a major discovery in nuclear physics .

A) at a news conference
B) at a congressional budget hearing
C) on television
D) at a scientific conference
E) in a news release

57) When someone tells you “We’ve always done things that way,” it is likely that person is following .

A) a logistical plan

B) a standing plan

C) a flexible plan

D) an ad hoc plan
E) a contingency plan

58) Public relations practitioners engage in planning because

A) it helps an organization control its destiny
B) it helps an organization to secure needed resources
C) it keeps actions in line with an organization’s values-based mission
D) A and C
E) all of the above

59) According to the Institute for Public Relations, a good objective .

A) describes a specific public relations action

B) is a general statement of anticipated results

C) specifies only one target audience
D) is inexpensive
E) refers to “ends,” not “means”

60) Generalized statements of the outcomes you hope your plan will achieve are .

A) goals
B) tactics
C) brainstorming
D) objectives
E) building consensus

61) PIPP, POST, and TASC are acronyms associated with .

A) evaluative research
B) team building

C) a planning grid

D) goal setting
E) a situation analysis

62) A good plan is .

A) a win-win proposition
B) realistic
C) values-driven
D) all of the above
E) none of the above

63) A pitch is directed toward .

A) investors
B) voters
C) journalists
D) government regulators
E) customers

64) What’s the best advice for a news conference?

A) Don’t do it if alternatives such as a news release would work as well.
B) Invite only media you know are friendly.

C) Have refreshments for reporters.
D) Have hot coffee on hand.
E) Schedule it when all media can attend.

65) When executing a public relations plan, is/are among the key factors to be considered.

A) communication within the team
B) deadlines
C) quality control
D) All of the above
E) None of the above

66) PACs .

A) are focus groups that test the worthiness of potential survey questions
B) are the same thing as lobbies
C) give money to political candidates
D) are prohibited by the United States Code
E) have little impact on the political process at the federal level

67) When conducting a news conference, it is a good idea to

A) limit the session to one hour
B) begin with a prepared statement
C) rehearse your presenters
D) All of the above
E) None of the above

68) According to the authors of your textbook, the writing process has something in common with .

A) the Agenda Setting Hypothesis B) Uses and Gratifications Theory

C) Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
D) survey research
E) the communications grid

69) At which stage of the writing process must one overcome what is known as “the euphoria of creation”?

A) revision
B) evaluation
C) organization
D) research
E) credibility

70) Writing for the web is different from writing for a printed page because .

A) computer users are more sophisticated than traditional print users
B) the Internet provides unlimited space for detail
C) computer screens are harder to read than the printed page
D) A and B

E) A and C

71) A Georgetown University medical professor accused pharmaceutical companies of .

A) misleading advertising of their products
B) encouraging professors to submit favorable ghostwritten journal articles
C) engaging in unethical public relations practices
D) A and C

E) B and C

72) According to a survey cited in your textbook, what percentage of articles in top U.S. medical journals were ghostwritten?

A) 19 percent

B) 46 percent

C) 25 percent

D) 6 percent

E) 11 percent

73) are informal online communities that come together from time-to-time because of common interests.

A) Social media
B) Social networks
C) Utopias
D) Global villages
E) Hypermedia

74) Among the Internet issues that a practitioner should consider is/are .

A) the Internet is a form of passive communication
B) an online generation gap

C) the accuracy of research

D) All of the above.
E) None of the above.

75) The growth of wireless digital communications technology will make it possible for .

A) us to become more mobile, responsive, and cost-effective
B) Western industrialized nations to increase their economic advantage
C) developing nations to catch up with industrialized Western nations
D) A and C

E) B and C

76) A popular collaborative software that allows multiple people to contribute to online content is known as .

A) wiki
B) cybersharing
C) bluetooth
D) wi fi

77) When deciding which medium to use to communicate, the authors of your textbook remind you that .

A) new isn’t always better
B) analog is better than digital

C) you should always go digital

D) the medium is the message

E) everyone is on the Internet

78) Most crises are .

A) unavoidable
B) time consuming
C) predictable

D) expensive E) disastrous

79) Which of the following statements is/are true?

A) In both shuttle disasters, NASA suffered from what investigators called “go fever.”
B) NASA won public praise for its handling of the Columbia accident.
C) NASA learned to communicate better during crises after the Challenger accident.
D) All of the above.
E) None of the above.

80) The crisis management team meets in the .

A) emergency operations center
B) place where the crisis is occurring
C) central command post
D) media information center
E) executive suite

81) During the 2006 Sago mine disaster, .

A) the mining company president acknowledged that he made a mistake
B) the mining company initially received praise for its crisis communications
C) the mining did not have a crisis communications plan
D) A and B

E) B and C

82) Exxon Corporation CEO Lawrence G. Rawl .

A) won praise for his handling of the Alaskan oil spill in
March 1989
B) rushed to the scene of the Alaskan oil spill in March 1989
C) waited a week before publicly commenting on the Alaskan oil spill in March 1989
D) A and C
E) All of the above.

83) An indication that public relations is influencing consumer- focused marketing is .

A) the dividing of publics into smaller publics
B) the decline in the use of IMC
C) the emphasis on two-way communication
D) A and B

E) A and C

84) Traditional tactics in marketing public relations include

A) billboards
B) advertising
C) blogs and interactive web sites
D) All of the above.
E) None of the above.

85) An information-bearing experience that a customer or prospect has with a product, service, or the market that relates to that product or service is known as a .

A) sale
B) double jeopardy
C) pitch
D) contact
E) message

86) Humor columnist Dave Barry’s comments on North Dakota and South Dakota illustrate how .
A) advertising can be more powerful than public relations in an IMC campaign
B) the concept of place can send marketing messages to consumers
C) consumers cannot distinguish between closely related products
D) names can send marketing messages to consumers
E) consumers will not travel far to acquire desired products

87) Umbro was surprised when it discovered that its new running show was named after .

A) a variety of aardvark
B) a mythical sexual predator
C) a body part
D) the poison gas used in Nazi concentration camps
E) the devil

88) Nemawashi refers to .

A) the Chinese social hierarchy
B) a Japanese consensus-building process
C) the Spanish tradition of taking a mid-afternoon nap
D) a Wisconsin-based insurance company
E) the Japanese tradition of exchanging gifts

89) The first step in the cross-cultural communications process is
A) testing
B) awareness
C) advocacy
D) commitment
E) diversity

90) According to Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, measures how well a society tolerates ambiguity.

A) long-term orientation
B) uncertainty avoidance
C) masculinity versus femininity
D) power distance
E) individualism versus collectivism

91) Cross-cultural communication works best when .

A) employees are required to do it
B) an entire organization commits to it
C) federal government guidelines are followed

D) all of the above
E) none of the above

92) When a characteristic or quality is assigned to all members of a particular group, this is known as .

A) acculturation

B) coorientation

C) assimilation
D) discombobulation
E) stereotyping

93) Expression associated with the normal conduct of a democracy is known as speech.

A) democratic

B) republican

C) free
D) absolute
E) political

94) The Freedom of Information Act .

A) provides for free expression
B) provides access to most federal government records
C) applies only to politicians
D) requires practitioners to tell the truth
E) opens most federal government meetings

95) Which of the following is not a burden of proof in libel?

A) publication
B) damage
C) fault
D) defamation
E) blame

96) Oprah Winfrey was sued by the cattle industry for allegedly violating law.

A) copyright
B) financial disclosure

C) intellectual property

D) food disparagement

E) libel

97) According to your textbook, the most successful efforts at spreading democracy around the world have been those

A) mindful of local traditions and values
B) based in good intentions
C) that strengthened the political process
D) based on embracing the values that made the United States a great nation
E) backed with substantial financial commitment

98) is how the United Nations describes as “the growing interdependence of the world’s people through shrinking space, shrinking time, and disappearing borders?”

A) McLuhanism

B) Globalization


C) Socialism
D) Darwinism
E) Populism

99) The effort by companies to be seen as being more environmentally friendly has been called public relations.

A) global
B) eco-PR
C) earth-friendly
D) green
E) environmental

100) According to a gender study on job satisfaction among public relations practitioners, .

A) men and women appear to respect one another
B) women are avoiding men
C) men and women viewed their jobs the same
D) men are avoiding women
E) it is a bad idea to have men and women working together

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