Principles of ethics 445n | Philosophy homework help

Follow-Up Post Instructions

Respond to at least one peer and the instructor

Please write a minimum of five complete sentences for your one peer posting. You should also consider referencing some information from the course textbook, lecture lessons, or a scholarly source to help support your written response post.

Writing Requirements

  • Minimum of 2 sources cited (assigned readings/online lessons and an outside scholarly source)
  • APA format for in-text citations and list of references

This discussion focuses on shame.

Shame can be categorized as an emotion that has been deeply hidden (Bateman & Engel, 2018). Ruggiero (2012) stated that the human condition of shame can have adverse impacts on an individual as well as society. Israeli and Raveh (2018) support this by citing that shame is common to humanity. For instance, shame conditions the way that a person lives in the world. According to Uebel (2009), shame can cause an individual to structure their world in a particular way especially when engaging with others.

Shame, like emotivism, deals with emotions or feelings (Rachels & Rachels, 2019). Shame can be defined as humiliation. Furthermore, shame can be viewed as an isolating experience. This term can also be used to communicate how people live out shameful experiences. For example, “Pennebaker (1990) pointed out that many citizens of Dallas felt ashamed of their city for many years after the assassination of President Kennedy, even though there was no sense in which Dallas or its citizens were responsible for what happened. Assassin Lee Harvey Oswald was from New Orleans” (Uebel, 2009, p. 236).

Shame has several main functions. The first functions deals with the intuitiveness of shame. Shame is visual. It is considered as being identical to exposure. “Shame is an emotion routed through the eyes and its mise-en-scène is thus specularity and exposure, involving the spatial organization of a spectator who can be external, internal, or both at once” (Uebel, 2009, p. 234).

Secondly, shame has been viewed as a function of the spectatorial and spatial dimensions. Uebel (2009) noted that an individual who experiences shame is suspended between what is known verses unknown. Thirdly, shame has dramaturgical or performative meaning. For example, an actor or actress who is unaware of themselves at some point becomes aware. This awakened awareness makes the individual feel like an actor or actress that is engaging in a real life performance before others. In other words, there is a double-ness to shame. This occurs when one can see their behavior.

The fourth function of shame is its transformative disruption of what we think we know about ourselves. Shame deals with the experience of an individual’s own limitations. Fifth is shames relationship-seeking quality or ethical significance. Sixth is shame has a moral relevance. Lastly, shame functions as guilt.

In brief, Uebel (2009) noted that shame can encompass guilt. However, guilt cannot encompass shame. Shame lets a person know what their faults or inadequacies are. Guilt, on the other hand, only informs a person of the harm he or she has brought upon another. This is whether the harm is intentional or unintentional.

Attached is a video with more information related to shame (The School of Life, 2019).

The Problem of Shame (video)


Bateman, M., & Engel, S. (2018). To shame or not to shame—that is the sanitation question. Development Policy Review, 36(2), 155–173.

Israeli, A., & Raveh, I. (2018). “He did not embarrass her”:  Motherhood and shame in Talmudic literature. Nashim: A Journal of Jewish Women’s Studies & Gender Issues, 33(1), 20–37.

Rachels, J., & Rachels, S. (2019). The elements of moral philosophy. [VitalSource Bookshelf]. Retrieved from

Ruggiero, V. R. (2012). Thinking critically about ethical issues. Mc-Graw Hill.

The School of Life. (2018, August 9). The problem of shame. [Video]. YouTube.

Uebel, M. (2019). Dirty rotten shame? The value and ethical functions of shame. Journal of Humanistic Psychology59(2), 232–251.

Sample Peer Post

Hello Jane.

I enjoyed reading the comments that you shared in your initial post as it relates to female circumcision. Valid points were shared related to the world view you held. For example, I appreciated reading information that you wrote related to subjective moral relativist. Also, you shared good information related to the steps that you would take as to whether you can assist the surgeon. Allow me to share some additional insight as it relates to female circumcision as well as my thoughts related to cultural relativism. It is true that equality exists when examining cultures and societies based on a cultural relativist perspective. According to Rachels and Rachels (2019), “Different cultures have different moral codes” (p. 14). As a nurse, my Hippocratic Oath is to do no harm (El-Gibaly et al., 2019). Since female genital mutilation (FGM) is illegal in a country like the United Kingdom (Bourne, 2018), my cultural beliefs would be in opposition to assisting the surgeon. This is where our views differed.


Bourne , J. (2018). Guarding against female genital mutilation. Primary Health Care ), 28(1), 18.

El-Gibaly, O., Aziz, M., & Salma, A. H. (2019). Health care providers’ and mothers’ perceptions about the medicalization of female genital mutilation or cutting in Egypt: A cross-sectional qualitative study. BMC International Health and Human Rights, 19.

Rachels, J., & Rachels, S. (2019). The elements of moral philosophy. [VitalSource Bookshelf]. Retrieved from

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