Which of the following is not a risk factor for developing substance


Question 1

Which of the following is not a risk factor for developing substance abuse problems?

having excessively permissive parents

having easy access to drugs

having friends who use and tolerate the use of drugs

being involved in a sexual relationship

2 points

Question 2

Studies of the long-term consequences of adolescent parenthood indicate that the problems associated with it:

are actually relatively minor, and research studies have difficulty replicating the findings.

may actually be greater for the children than for their mothers.

may actually be greater for the mothers than for their children.

are likely limited to psychological and emotional domains.

2 points

Question 3

Who is the most likely, after becoming pregnant, to have an abortion?

Jamie, a White female living in the suburbs

Kimberly, a White female who dropped out of high school

Dotty, a Black female who dropped out of high school

Tara, a Black female living in poverty

2 points

Question 4

According to social control theory, delinquency is caused by:

unconventionality in the adolescent’s personality.

an inherited predisposition toward deviance.

biologically based differences in arousal and sensation-seeking.

a lack of bonds to the family, the school, or the workplace.

2 points

Question 5

Which of the following is not typically considered to be autoerotic behavior during adolescence?

sexual activity experienced alone

sexual fantasies


sexual intercourse

2 points

Question 6

Which of the following statements about parent-adolescent communication about sex is not true?

Adolescents are more receptive to having one “big talk” about sex than having multiple conversations over a period of time.

Sexually active adolescents underestimate their parents’ disapproval of sexual activity.

Parents assume that if they disapprove of sexual activity, their adolescent is not likely to be sexually active.

There seems to be a gap between what parents say they have discussed with their adolescent child and what adolescents say they have discussed with their parents.

2 points

Question 7

According to research cited in the textbook, all of the following are reasons that some sex education programs fail, except:

when they are introduced into the curriculum too late (after adolescents are already sexually active).

when teachers are uncomfortable talking about the subject with students.

when they focus primarily on changing students’ knowledge rather than their behavior.

when they emphasize abstinence-only sex education.

2 points

Question 8

One of the most consistent predictors of chronic delinquency (or being a life-course persistent offender) appears to be rooted in:

poor relations with peers during childhood.

being exposed to disorganized families with hostile, inept, or neglectful parenting.

academic failure in junior high school.

pessimistic attitudes about employment prospects.

2 points

Question 9

Evaluations of adolescent treatment programs suggest:

placing adolescents who experiment with drugs into treatment programs has been effective in preventing escalation to drug abuse.

drug treatment programs for adolescent substance abuse are more effective when the adolescent’s family is involved in therapy with the adolescent.

the most effective programs are those that deal with substance abusing adolescents in a private setting, away from their families and friends.

most substance abuse treatment programs for adolescents have strict admission guidelines so they only accept adolescents who are seriously abusing drugs.

2 points

Question 10

What is the most common method of birth control among sexually active adolescents?


birth control pills


the rhythm method

2 points

Question 11

According to national surveys, sexual activity among adolescents is occurring ______ it has in past decades.

later than

earlier than

at the same time as

earlier for boys but later for girls than

2 points

Question 12

Which of the following is least likely to explain why growing up in a single-parent home affects girls’ sexual behavior more than boys’ sexual behavior?

Social influences on sexual behavior are weaker for girls than for boys, thereby leading to fewer restraints on girls’ sexual activities.

Single mothers may be dating, thereby inadvertently acting as role models of sexual activity for their adolescent daughters.

Girls are more likely than boys to look outside the family for warmth and support.

There may be a genetic link inherited from the girls’ fathers that increases daughters’ sexual behavior.

2 points

Question 13

Members of which of the following racial groups are most likely to become sexually experienced at earlier ages?

White adolescents

Hispanic adolescents

Asian American adolescents

Black adolescents

2 points

Question 14

Many experts endorse a model of depression that suggests individuals who are predisposed toward internalizing problems will develop depression when they are exposed to chronic or acute stressors. This is called:

emotion-focused diagnosis.

the diathesis-stress model.


antecedent diagnosis.

2 points

Question 15

Bobbie Jo’s employer has been sexually harassing her. Bobby Jo has decided to find a new job, which she will start next week, and she also has filed sexual harassment charges against her current employer. Bobbie Jo is using ______ strategies to deal with her stress.

primary control

secondary control



2 points

Question 16

Margaret has been able to withstand many stressors in her life without showing negative effects. Margaret’s behavior would be considered an example of:


an internalizing behavior.

an externalizing behavior.

withdrawal strategies.

2 points

Question 17

Peter’s parents caught him drinking alcohol with a couple of his friends and now they’re worried. They think his alcohol use might turn into a long-term problem. Which of the following best illustrates the nature of adolescent drug use?

Many adolescents experiment with alcohol in high school without growing into adult alcoholics.

Adolescent alcohol use is the first sign of long-term problems with drugs.

Adolescent alcohol use is a clear indication of permissive parenting techniques.

None of the above is true.

2 points


Question 18

Greg, a 17-year-old, has gotten his girlfriend pregnant. If he is typical of other males who impregnate adolescent women, we would expect him to experience all of the following, except:

low self-esteem.

school or work problems.

an increased sense of responsibility and optimism about the future.

problems with alcohol and other drugs.

2 points

Question 19

Since 1991, a survey assessing eighth-graders’, tenth-graders’, and high school seniors’ use and abuse of a variety of drugs has been distributed to a nationwide sample every year. The name of this survey is:

Examining the Future.

Monitoring Tomorrow.

Monitoring the Future.

Focus on the Future.

2 points

Question 20

According to the textbook, which adults are most likely to describe their fathers as distant and rejecting?

bisexual males

homosexual males

bisexual and homosexual adolescents

transgender males

2 points

Question 21

Recent research on promoting safe-sex behaviors among adolescents has suggested all of the following, except:

it is more effective to focus on adolescents’ motives and social relationships, rather than their knowledge about safe sex.

adolescents are often unaware that their partners may be having sex with others as well.

being aware of the risk of STDs is sufficient to ensure safe sex practices among adolescents.

it may be important to use different strategies for sexually active and inexperienced adolescents.

2 points

Question 22

Generalizing from the textbook, Marge is most likely to have her first sexual encounter with a:

younger partner.


casual acquaintance.

steady boyfriend.

2 points

Question 23

What is the best way to conceptualize adolescent sexual development?

as gradual stages of increasing intimacy

with the first event being intercourse

as an isolated behavior

there are no systematic patterns to adolescent sexual development

2 points

Question 24

Which aspect of parent-adolescent communication about sex is likely to have a meaningful effect on the adolescent’s behavior?

parent-child communication specifically focused on the topic of contraception lowers the rate of risky sex

parent-child discussion about whether the adolescent should have sex at all

parent-child communication that involves an authoritarian approach with specific, rigid rules with respect to sexual activity

parent-child communication that directly cautions their teenager against sex but avoids implying that sex is a moral or religious issue

2 points

Question 25

Some people who are delinquent as adolescents grow up to be law-abiding adults. What type of pattern is this?

transitory delinquency

negative affectivity

diathesis-stress model

adolescent limited offender

2 points

Question 26

Tim and Carol are upset because they recently discovered that their 13-year-old daughter has already engaged in sexual intercourse. What other types of problems is their daughter likely to have?

drug and alcohol problems

low interest in academics

tolerance of deviant behavior

All of the above.

2 points

Question 27

_______________ is an example of an internalizing disorder; _______________ is an example of an externalizing disorder.

Depression; psychosomatic disturbance

Anxiety; delinquency

Drug and alcohol abuse; delinquency

Truancy; psychosomatic disturbance

2 points

Question 28

Alcohol and marijuana are considered ______ drugs because they are almost always used before harder drugs.





2 points

Question 29

Studies of adolescent drug use suggest that:

a large majority of adolescents have serious drug dependence problems.

a large majority of adolescents use hard drugs.

drug and alcohol use are the underlying cause of many adolescents’ problems.

the drug of choice among adolescents is alcohol.

2 points

Question 30

The neurotransmitter associated with the experience of pleasure that is implicated in substance abuse problems is known as:





2 points

Question 31

Which of the following would be considered a status offense?

using marijuana

being truant from school

vandalizing property

All of the above.

2 points

Question 32

“Decreased enjoyment of pleasurable activities” and “low self-esteem” would be examples of what type of depressive symptoms?





2 points

Question 33

Which type of intervention has been effective for adolescent-limited offenders?

teaching them how to resist peer pressure and settle conflict without resorting to aggression

training parents to monitor their children effectively

making sure adolescents know that misbehavior has serious consequences

a combination of all of the above

2 points

Question 34

Which of the following is a likely reason that Black youngsters have a lower rate of drinking than their White counterparts?

They don’t have money to purchase alcohol.

They are biologically unable to process alcohol.

Their parents are less likely to drink and tolerate drinking.

Their celebrity role models do not drink.

2 points

Question 35

Which of the following statements about boys’ first sexual experience is false?

A boy’s first sexual experience is usually through masturbation.

Boys typically view sex as recreation.

A boy’s first sexual partner is likely to be someone he’s in love with.

Boys are more likely than girls to keep sex and intimacy separate.

2 points

Question 36

Kate is a Black teen mom and has decided to move back to her parents’ home. Which of the following statements is not true?

Kate is more likely to stay in school.

Living with parents might actually undermine the development of Kate’s parenting skills and increase her likelihood of getting pregnant again.

It would be best if Kate lived with her parents for an extended period.

Problems in the relationship between Kate and her mother can adversely affect Kate’s mental health.

2 points

Question 37

One explanation for girls’ greater susceptibility to internalizing problems, such as depression, emphasizes their greater orientation toward and sensitivity to interpersonal relationships. Specifically, gender differences in the level of the hormone ________ may play a role in making females both more invested in close relationships, and more vulnerable to adverse consequences of interpersonal problems.





2 points

Question 38

Sexual activity in the United States is _____ in other industrialized countries, and the rate of pregnancy is _____.

higher than; higher

lower than; the same

comparable; the same

comparable; higher

2 points

Question 39

For adolescent girls, which of the following is the most important factor in determining the onset of sexual intercourse?

increased levels of androgens

availability of birth control

the attitudes of friends toward sexual activity

receiving sex education in school

2 points

Question 40

At age 17, Cherise is a frequent drug user. According to one team of researchers who followed a sample of individuals from preschool into young adulthood, it is possible that:

she had psychological disturbance before the age of 7.

her problem behavior began a few months ago.

her problem behavior began by age 15.

it is her peer group, not her early family relations, that has directed her into using drugs.

2 points

Question 41

Suzanne has just found out that her 13-year-old daughter had been sexually abused by her piano teacher. According to research presented in the textbook, what type of problems is Suzanne’s daughter most likely to face?

dissociative disorders

psychopathic disorders

academic difficulties


2 points

Question 42

Vince engaged in delinquency as a pre-adolescent and has continued to be in trouble with the law ever since. Now, as a young adult, Vince would most likely be characterized as a _____ offender.




adolescent limited

2 points

Question 43

According to research by Small and Luster, which adolescent is most likely to engage in early sexual activity?

Chelsea, who lives in a low SES/disadvantaged neighborhood

Ryan, who has many antisocial peers

Frank, someone who has completely disengaged from school

The adolescent most likely to engage in early sexual activity is one that has a combination of the above risk factors.

2 points

Question 44

Todd would rather date men than women. This refers to Todd’s:

gender identity.

sexual orientation.

sex-role behavior.


2 points

Question 45

What is a reason offered by the textbook to explain why many youth do not receive substance abuse treatment?

These programs are rarely offered during times that do not interfere with a typical public school schedule.

There are many stigmas attached to seeking drug or alcohol treatment.

Many families, especially minority families, cannot afford (or don’t have adequate health insurance) to send their adolescent to treatment.

It is difficult to actually meet the clinical cut-off for “substance abuse”; therefore, it is hard to be accepted into one of these programs.

2 points

Question 46

The term “______ syndrome” refers to covariation among various types of externalizing disorders that results from an underlying trait of unconventionality found in the adolescent’s personality and social environment.

problem behavior

biological risk

social control


2 points

Question 47

Evaluations of individual-focused approaches to drug prevention programs have found that:

these programs are largely ineffective.

these programs are more effective for changing adolescents’ sexual behaviors than their drug use.

scare tactics are more effective in changing behavior than rational information.

random drug testing in schools has been the only effective strategy for reducing adolescents’ use of drugs.

2 points



Question 48

Kristin has just been the victim of a mugging. Her parents are concerned about how she will react to the crime. What problem(s) is(are) Kristin likely to report?

sleep deprivation

depressed mood

academic problems

All of the above.

2 points

Question 49

Approximately what percentage of American adolescents have had sexual intercourse before the end of their sophomore year of high school?





2 points

Question 50

An analysis of “virginity pledges” that encourage adolescents to promise to abstain from premarital sex has found that:

pledging works equally well for adolescents of all ages.

pledging has a big effect in schools in which few students take the pledge.

pledging works well in schools in which nearly everyone takes the pledge.

about 82% of adolescents who take a virginity pledge will deny having done so five years later.



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